Sumatran tiger sperm bank
Wahyoe Boediwardhana, The Jakarta Post, Bogor, West Java Sat, December 15 2012, 3:40 PM
Deadly look: Ara, 17-year-old female Sumatran tiger, sits in her enclosure at Taman Safari Indonesia (TSI) conservation park in Cisarua, Bogor. Ara’s lost part of a leg in a trap set up by oil palm growers in Riau in 1997.
In a crouching posture and with a sharp stare for any approaching figure, a tiger gave a loud roar audible some 10 meters away. It was Ara, a once deadly 17-year-old female Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) now kept at Taman Safari Indonesia (TSI) conservation park in Cisarua, Bogor.
“Its right front leg was cut off after getting entangled in a trap set up by oil palm growers in Riau in 1997,” Irawan, head of the park’s education division, told The Jakarta Post at the TSI’s Sumatran Tiger Captive Breeding Center (PPHS) recently.
Sperm deposit: An employee checks tubes specially designed to keep the sperm of Sumatran tigers for years.Ara is one of the nine rare Sumatran tigers now being bred in captivity at PPHS. Discovered at the age of two, it is among those originally caught by local people in the forests of Sumatra. Some of them are old while others are physically impaired. These tigers are considered unfit for release into the wild.
The breeding ground covers 1 hectare of the TSI’s total area of 186 hectares on the slopes of Mount Pangrango. Closed to the general public, PPHS is the world’s only Sumatran tiger captive breeding center.
This center is tasked with rescuing the last of the three tiger sub-species once belonging to Indonesia, after Balinese tigers (Panthera tigris balica) and Javanese tigers (Panthera tigris sundaica) were declared extinct by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in 1940 and around 1980.
Well-planned: A board shows the schedule for collecting sperm from 11 Sumatran tigers in the park.Interestingly, the rescue is not only conducted through the natural process of reproduction, but also by building a Sumatran tiger sperm bank, so as to better guarantee the conservation of the last tiger sub-species in the country.
In 2007, at a workshop on the prevention of Sumatran tiger hunting and trading organized in Medan, North Sumatra, wildlife watchdog group Traffic Southeast Asia’s regional program officer Chris Shepherd said Sumatran tigers might go extinct by 2015.
Hunting, habitat fragmentation and forest burning have threatened the existence of Sumatran tigers, now listed as critically endangered animals, the highest category of threat. According to Shepherd, no less than 50 Sumatran tigers were traded in 2006, in whole form as well as in body parts.
Forum HarimauKita, a tiger rescue forum, referred to hunting and conflict with men as major threats to Sumatran tigers. Between 1978-1999, 146 cases of conflict were recorded. In 1998-2002, 38 tigers were killed, and in 2002-2004 the conflict claimed 40 human lives. Over 50 cases were noted in 2005-2007.
Guardian: A keeper watches the behavior of Harpan, a male Sumatran tiger, before he is placed in a “wedding enclosure” to be mated with Ara.
Sumatran Tiger Coordinator and president of the South East Asian Zoos Association (SEAZA), Jansen Manansang, said at least 18 world zoo institutions had shown their concern and given donations to ensure the continuity of the captive breeding of the endangered animals of Sumatra.
The government has also assigned the TSI to keep the studbook of the population of Sumatran tigers. The only Sumatran tiger studbook keeper in the world is Ligaya Ita Tumbelaka, a lecturer from the Veterinary Medicine faculty, Bogor Institute of Agriculture (IPB).
Meanwhile, the high value of protected animals has also made Sumatran tigers a medium of diplomatic communication to promote bilateral relations of Indonesia, as is the case with komodo dragons and orangutans. Sumatran tigers have been sent to Australia and Japan for the same purpose.
Photos by JP/Wahyoe Boedhiwardhana
Somphot Duangchantrasiri, head of the Khao Nang Rum wildlife research station, which runs a camera trapping project in Petchaburi’s Kaeng Krachan National Park, said his team had found the tiger population in the park was on the decline.
In their most recent camera-trapping project between November last year and January this year, no images of tigers were recorded. Significantly less tiger activity was also documented compared to a similar exercise in 2002.
”It is a warning sign of the [declining] tiger population in the site,” he said. ”Although we can’t say for certain there are no tigers left in the park, their population is certainly under threat due to deforestation and poaching,” Mr Somphot said.
The research team set up 47 cameras over an area of 500 sq km.
The cameras recorded images of around 30 mammal species including marbled cats, clouded leopards, golden cats and elephants. But they found no tigers.
Still, the team found traces of tiger activity at five spots in Panern Thung area and near Petchaburi River. They expected at least one of them to be a female tiger.
In the 2002 study, the team set up camera trapping equipment at 21 points – less than half the number of the recent study – and captured images of only four tigers.
Mr Somphot said a similar trend has been found in Kui Buri National Park in Prachuap Khiri Khan province.
In a recent survey conducted by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), tiger population density in Kui Buri had decreased from 0.8 tigers per 100 sq km to 0.4.
”We might lose the tiger populations of two national parks if there are no effective measures taken to save them,” Mr Somphot said.
”The situation is very complicated as there are more than 7,000 people living in Kaeng Krachan National Park.”
The tiger population in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary in Uthai Thani province has remained stable, while the number of tigers living in Mae Wong national park in Kamphaeng Phet province has increased, he said.
Ruangnapa Phoonjampa, chief of a WWF project to increase tiger populations in Mae Wong and Klong Lan national parks, said the two national parks are large enough to house more tigers.
She said the tiger population density in Haui Kha Khaeng wildlife sanctuary is 2.5 per 100 sq km. ”There is enough food and space for them in the two national parks. Moreover, there are no people living inside the parks,” she said.
The tiger population density in Mae Wong National Park is just 0.75 per 100 sq km. A recent WWF survey found 10 mature tigers with two cubs moving around Mae Wong National Park, in addition to the more than 32 other endangered species.
The survey has been forwarded to the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, which studied the environmental impacts of the proposed Mae Wong Dam project.
Conservationists fear construction of the dam will destroy tiger habitats.
An adult tiger sets off a camera trap in the Tenasserim mountain range in 2001. FILE PHOTO
The animal recovers, but other tigers may meet a different fate.
This female tiger caught in a barbed wire fence was later rescued.
Photograph courtesy Karnataka Forest Department via WCS
National Geographic News
Published December 14, 2012
On the morning of December 4, a coffee planter in the Indian village of Nidugumba found a tigress caught by the paw in his estate’s barbed wire fence.
She had wandered about three quarters of a mile (1.2 kilometers) from India’s Nagarahole National Park into Nidugumba. The park was declared a tiger reserve in 1999 and has 10 to 12 tigers per 62 square miles. (From National Geographic magazine: Can we save the mightiest cat on Earth?)
“Wherever tiger conservation has succeeded and populations produce surpluses, tigers getting snared or cornered in human settlements is not uncommon,” said K. Ullas Karanth, a scientist with the Wildlife Conservation Society. He estimates that 30 to 50 tigers are caught across India in a year, typically in illegal wire snares set by villagers to catch deer or pigs. (Related pictures: Tigers in peril.)
The coffee planter who found the tigress contacted Nagarahole forest staff, and rangers and veterinarians arrived to tranquilize the animal. Her paw was then untangled from the fence, and she was transported to Mysore Zoo for examination and medical treatment. Officials will soon decide if she is strong enough to return to the wild or should remain in a zoo.
Not all big cats are so lucky when they enter areas densely populated by humans. Two days prior to this tiger’s rescue, a tiger roaming through villages in Wayanad, Kerala, a state in the southwest of India, was cornered by a local mob and shot dead. Reports state that the tiger’s body was paraded before the public.
FORT WAYNE, Ind. (AP) — Visitors to the Fort Wayne Children’s Zoo next season will see at least one new tiger and probably two.
Female Sumatran tiger Kemala is already on her way to the Toronto Zoo, and plans are for male Teddy to move, as well.
“The tiger population is changing,” said Cheryl Piropato, the zoo’s education and communications director. “But the plans aren’t complete.”
Because Sumatran tigers are so rare – the World Wildlife Federation estimates there are fewer than 400 left in the wild – the captive population is managed by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and its conservation breeding program.
Officials found a good match for Kemala in Toronto, Piropato told The Journal Gazette, and hope there will be cubs in the future. Although Teddy was born in a litter of cubs here, the zoo isn’t big enough to be a breeding facility, so plans are for Teddy to move somewhere else, again in hopes of producing cubs.
But Piropato said plans for Teddy could still change.
“Sometimes these things change for all sorts of reasons,” she said.
Zoo officials don’t know who might replace the 200-pound cats.
“The ultimate plan would be to have two tigers we can exhibit together,” Piropato said. But they will probably not be a mating pair. “We really don’t have enough room for cubs.”
But just as finding good matches for breeding is a challenge, so is finding two nonbreeding tigers that can be together.
Tigers are by nature solitary, and can also be territorial. They are also incredible predators.
“Putting two males together, if they’re brothers, that can work,” Piropato said, “but even introducing adult males and females to each other can be challenging.”
Sumatran tigers are a subspecies of tiger, and despite their size are one of the smallest tigers – Bengal tigers, for example, weigh around 550 pounds.
Sumatran tigers live only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, but their habitat there is being lost quickly to palm oil plantations. While it can be frustrating for visitors to see animals move to other zoos, modern zoos are as much or more about ensuring the survival of threatened and endangered species as they are about displaying the animals.
“We’re trying to conserve what could be the last of these species,” Piropato said. “A couple of tiger subspecies have become extinct in the last century. The Siberian tiger is even more endangered. . But it’s a cooperative endeavor – we can’t save the captive tiger population by ourselves with one or two cats.”
Those considerations even play a role in exhibit design. Visitors to the Tiger Forest know the chance of actually seeing more than just a twitching tail or a glimpse of striped hide are low.
“Tigers by nature are solitary animals, and we have talked about making changes to the exhibit to facilitate viewing, but it’s always a balance between meeting the needs of the animal that wants to hide and the needs of the guests, which want to see it,” Piropato said.
Whatever happens, she said, visitors should rest assured that there will be a large predator in the Tiger Forest when the gates open for the 2013 season.
“We will have tigers in our tiger exhibit this spring,” she said.
Information from: The Journal Gazette, http://www.journalgazette.net
Sumatran tiger pair moving to other zoos
Updated: Friday, 14 Dec 2012, 12:42 PM EST
Published : Friday, 14 Dec 2012, 12:42 PM EST
HASSANUR (SATHYAMANGALAM): B Govindan, a small scale farmer from Itarai has lost 22 cows in the last three years to tigers straying out of Sathyamangalam forest in search of prey. Despite a loss of Rs 15,000 for each cow killed, Govindan never thought of poisoning the big cat. Neither did he approach the government for help to gun down the tiger. After each loss, he simply took the bus to Hassanur where he informed B Krishnakumar, an entrepreneur and conservation activist, about the loss. After verifying the incident, Krishnakumar gives him some money from his own pocket which at least partially compensates for Govindan’s loss.
Captive breeding of tigers puts pressure on wild tigers
A THAI deputy prime minister has been charged in connection with the export to China of 100 tigers, an endangered species protected by international law, the attorney general’s office told AFP.
Plodprasop Suraswadi approved the export of tigers from Sriracha Tiger Zoo – a popular tourist attraction a few hours from Bangkok – to a Chinese breeding firm in 2002. He was the head of the forestry department at the time.
He was charged under an article in Thai law which includes the “abuse of power, failing to carry out his duty and/or corruption,” according to Teerayhut Mapame of the attorney general’s office. (more…)