Mandarin Chinese White Tigers

White Tigers

白虎

All White Tigers Are Inbred and Are Not Purebred

所有的白虎都是近亲交配产生的

The ONLY way to produce a tiger or lion with a white coat is through inbreeding brother to sister or father to daughter; generation after generation after generation.  The kind of severe inbreeding that is required to produce the mutation of a white coat also causes a number of other defects in these big cats.

产生一只白虎或者白狮子只有一种方法,就是通过一代又一代地在哥哥和妹妹或者父亲和女儿之间进行近亲交配。要制造出这种突变的白色皮毛,这些大型猫科动物需要进行大量的近亲交配,这同时伴随着许多其他缺陷。

In June 2011 the board of directors for the American Zoological Association (AZA) formalized their 2008 ban on the breeding of white tigers, white lions or king cheetahs by their member zoos.  Their report said, “Breeding practices that increase the physical expression of single rare alleles (i.e., rare genetic traits) through intentional inbreeding, for example intentional breeding to achieve rare color-morphs such as white tigers, deer, and alligators, has been clearly linked with various abnormal, debilitating, and, at times, lethal, external and internal conditions and characteristics, which are outlined in this paper.”   This change in policy came more than 12 years after Big Cat Rescue first released Dr. Laughlin’s expose below.

在2011年6月,美国动物协会(AZA)董事会正式通过2008禁令:禁止其名下动物园繁育白虎、白狮、和帝王豹。报道称:通过刻意的近亲繁殖手段会增加单一的稀有等位基因(罕见的遗传特征)的表现几率,比如通过故意繁殖使得到稀有的色型比如白虎、鹿和短吻鳄,这样的近亲繁殖手段明显涉及到多种非常规的、抑制型的、偶尔致死的、外部及内部的情况与特性,本文会就这些情况与特性进行简要概述。

The same gene that causes the white coat causes the optic nerve to be wired to the wrong side of the brain, thus all white tigers are cross eyed, even if their eyes look normal.  They also often suffer from club feet, cleft palates, spinal deformities and defective organs.

产生白色皮毛的同种基因会导致视神经错误连接至另一侧大脑,因此所有的白虎都患有内斜视,尽管有些白虎的眼睛外观上看起来是正常的。这些白虎同样患有畸形足、腭裂、脊柱畸形和发育不完全。

The white coat is a double recessive gene so most of the cubs born through this inbreeding have normal coloring but they too suffer the same defects and are referred to in the trade as “throw away tigers.”  As such, they are often killed at birth because only the white tigers are the big money makers.  And because none of these cats are purebred (they are all crosses between Bengal tigers and Siberian tigers), they serve no conservation purpose.

白色外皮产生于双隐性基因,因此大多数通过近亲繁殖产生的幼虎尽管拥有正常的皮毛颜色,它们也要承受同样的生理缺陷,这样的幼虎通常会在交易中变成“被丢弃的老虎”。这样的幼虎通常在通常在出生时就被杀死因为只有白虎在可以制造大笔财富。同样,由于这些老虎也不是纯种的老虎(它们是由孟加拉虎和西伯利亚虎杂交繁殖的),所以它们也没有任何保护价值。

 

The American Zoological Association (AZA) recognizes that these cats should not be bred and admonishes AZA accredited zoos not to breed any more of them.  The leader of the tiger Species Survival Plan states openly that the only reason people breed white tigers is because people will pay to see white tigers.

美国动物协会(AZA)确认这类老虎不应被繁育并且警告AZA旗下动物园不要再繁育这种老虎。老虎物种生存计划的带头人公开表示,人类繁育白虎的唯一原因是因为人们愿意花钱观看白虎。

You can end the misery by just Saying NO to any place that breeds or exploits white tigers.

请你通过向任何繁育或剥削白虎的机构说“”来阻止这样的不幸悲剧。

WANT TO DO SOMETHING ABOUT IT?

想要做些什么?

 

Visit CatLaws.com and take action now!

浏览CatLaws.com并开始行动!

Teachers & Educators

教师&教育

Check out our White Tiger Lesson Plan

查看我们的白虎课程计划

The White Tiger Fraud

白虎的骗局

Did you know the only way to produce a white tiger is through severe inbreeding of brother to sister, father to daughter and mother to son?

 

你知道想要产生一只白虎的唯一方法就是通过兄妹或父女之间的严重的近亲繁殖吗?

Did you know that there is no such species as a Royal White Bengal Tiger?

你知道其实根本没有皇家白孟加拉虎这一品种吗?

If you didn’t know that, don’t feel bad, you were deceived just like millions of others.  Read on to learn the truth about white tigers, white lions, tabby tigers and other genetic aberrations.  Print the White Tiger Fact Sheet Brochure

如果你不知道这些,也没关系,你只是被蒙骗的数百万人中的一员。继续阅读以了解更多关于白虎、白狮、虎斑虎及其他基因畸变物种的真相。 打印白虎真相手册

Over the years many people have asked us to take white tigers off their hands, but in every case it was only so they could breed more babies to use, so we declined. For years we have railed against supporting facilities that breed and exhibit white tigers because of the abuse involved in producing them. White Tigers can ONLY exist in captivity by continual inbreeding, such as father to daughter, brother to sister, mother to son and so forth. The white lions and golden tabby tigers are merely a product of this practice of inbreeding for white coats as well and are not being bred for any sort of conservation program either. ALL white tigers are cross eyed, whether it shows or not, because the gene that causes the white coat always causes the optic nerve to be wired to the wrong side of the brain.  That is why white tigers are such a favorite of the tiger-tamer-wanabees; they are far more dependent upon their masters.  (See genetics and time line of the inbreeding below)

多年以来,许多人试图从我们手中购买白虎,但是他们只有一种目的就是用来繁殖更多有用的白虎,所以我们全部拒绝了。 这些年来我们问责那些繁殖并展出白虎的辅助机构因为在繁殖的过程中涉及到了虐待。 白虎只能通过父女、兄妹、母子的近亲交配而繁殖并存在于囚笼中。白狮子和虎斑虎也是类似于为了繁殖出白色皮毛而经历了近亲繁殖的产物,它们并不是为任何类型的保护计划而繁殖的。所有的白虎都是交叉眼的,无论是否有所表现,这都是因为产生白色皮毛的基因总会导致视觉神经错误地连接到另一侧大脑。这就是为什么白虎更受老虎驯化者宠爱的原因,因为它们更依赖主人。(遗传学及近亲繁殖时间线如下)

The myth of the Rare White Bengal Tiger was an illusion meant to deceive the public into thinking that these cats were endangered and being preserved for future generations. The truth of the matter is that they aren’t even pure Bengal tigers, but rather are all the offspring of an original Siberian / Bengal cross breeding. The inbreeding results in many defects, early deaths, still births and, as could be expected, the cats are not very bright which is why they are preferred for entertainment purposes.

关于稀有的白孟加拉虎的神话是一种欺骗公众的幻觉,让人们认为这些白虎濒临灭绝,此举是为保存后代。事实上,这些白虎甚至都不是纯种的孟加拉虎,它们是由原始的西伯利亚虎和孟加拉虎杂交而繁殖出的后代。近亲繁殖会导致很多的先天缺陷,如早夭、死胎,以及就如预料到的那样,白虎并不十分聪明,这就是为什么这些白虎会被用来做娱乐的原因。

To quote from Dr. Ron Tilson, Conservation Director of the Minnesota Zoo and manager of the world renown Tiger Species Survival Plan, “The white tiger controversy among zoos is a small part ethics and a large part economics. The tiger Species Survival Plan has condemned breeding white tigers because of their mixed ancestry, most have been hybridized with other subspecies and are of unknown lineage, and because they serve no conservation purpose. Owners of white tigers say they are popular exhibit animals and increase zoo attendance and revenues as well. The same rationalization can be applied to the selective propagation of white lions, king cheetahs and other phenotypically aberrant animals.”

引用明尼苏达动物园保护总监及世界著名的老虎物种生存计划的经理Ron Tilson博士的话说:“动物园中的白虎争议所涉及到的是道德规范的一小部分,和经济的一大部分。老虎物种生存计划强烈谴责繁育白虎这样的行为,因为这些白虎的混血祖先,多数已经与其他亚种虎类杂交,属于不为人知的世系血统,并没有保存的需要。一些白虎的拥有者说这些白虎是很受欢迎的展出动物,它们可以提高动物园的入园率和利润。同样,这些理由也可用于选择性的繁殖白狮子、帝王豹和其他异常表现型的动物。

“White tigers are an aberration artificially bred and proliferated
by some zoos, private breeders and a few circuses who do so for
economic rather than conservation reasons.”“白虎是一种由动物园、私人繁育者和少数马戏团为了经济原因而不是保护原因而通过人工繁育产生的。“

“However, there is an unspoken issue that shames the very integrity of zoos, their alleged conservation programs and their message to the visiting public. To produce white tigers or any other phenotypic curiosity, directors of zoos and other facilities must continuously inbreed father to daughter and father to granddaughter and so on. At issue is a contradiction of fundamental genetic principles upon which all Species Survival Plans for endangered species in captivity are based. White tigers are an aberration artificially bred and proliferated by some zoos, private breeders and a few circuses who do so for economic rather than conservation reasons.”

“然而,有一个不言而喻的问题就是这会抹黑动物园的正义性、所谓的保护计划以及传递给访客的信息。为了产生白虎或者其他新奇的表现型物种,动物园和其他设施的负责人必须使父女或祖父女不断地近亲繁殖。这会导致一个基本的遗传原理的矛盾,而所有的濒危物种生存计划都是基于这个原理的。白虎是一种由动物园、私人繁育者和少数马戏团为了经济原因而不是保护原因而通过人工繁育产生的。”

As for breeding tigers of any color, Ron Tilson says, “For private owners to say, ‘We’re saving tigers,’ is a lie,” Tilson says. “They are not saving tigers; they’re breeding them for profit.”

Ron Tilson说: “对于繁育任何颜色的老虎,那些私人拥有者所说的 ‘我们在拯救老虎’是一个谎言,它们不是在拯救老虎,它们是通过繁育老虎来牟利。”

Tilson says the exotic animal market is a multimillion dollar industry, ranking just below the illegal drug trade and just above the illegal gun market.

Tilson说,这个外来的的动物市场是一个数百万美元的产业,仅排在非法毒品交易之下,高于非法军火市场。

Tilson says tigers are the most charismatic animal on earth. Their appeal is universal. “They are the alpha predator who used to kill and eat us,” he says. “We cannot help but be in awe of their power and grace. Tigers represent everything fine and decent and powerful. Everything those people would like to be. It’s all an ego trip—big guns, big trucks, and big tigers.”

Tilson说老虎是世界上最具魅力的动物。他们的吸引力是面向全世界的。他说: “老虎是曾经杀死并吃掉我们的远古猎食者,我们不得不敬畏他们的权力和恩惠。老虎表现了所有美好的、体面的、强大的事物。这是任何人都想要得到并拥有的。追求个人满足的体现—枪、卡车和大老虎。”

…most have such profound birth defects, such as immune deficiency,
scoliosis of the spine (distorted spine), cleft palates, mental impairments and grotesquely crossed eyes that bulge from their skull……大部分都有严重的先天缺陷,如免疫系统缺陷,脊柱侧弯(畸形脊柱),唇腭裂,精神障碍和由于颅骨凸出的造成的交叉眼…

Consider this: Only 1 in 4 tiger cubs from a white tiger bred to an orange tiger carrying the white gene are born white, and 80% of those die from birth defects associated with the inbreeding necessary to cause a white coat.

想想这一点:只有四分之一的携带白色皮毛基因的老虎是白色的,并且其中80%死于想要繁育出白虎的近亲交配而产生的先天缺陷。

Of those surviving, most have such profound birth defects, such as immune deficiency, scoliosis of the spine (distorted spine), cleft palates, mental impairments and grotesquely crossed eyes that bulge from their skull that only a small percentage are suitable for display. Due to these birth defects, white tigers often die an early death. According to some tiger trainers, only 1 in 30 of those white cats will consistently perform. The number of tigers that have to be produced and disposed of in order to fill the public’s desire to see white tigers on display is staggering.

存活下来的白虎中,大部分都有严重的先天缺陷,如免疫系统缺陷,脊柱侧弯(畸形脊柱),唇腭裂,精神障碍和由于颅骨凸出的造成的交叉眼,只有一小部分白虎适合进行展示。 由于这些先天的缺陷,白虎经常很小就会死亡。 一些老虎驯兽师表示,只有三十分之一的白虎可以持续性地表演。 为了满足公众想要观看白虎的愿望,繁育生产出的虎数量非常大。

Big Cat Rescue has never taken in a white tiger before because we did not want to enable people to dispose of their “defective” cats and cause so much more suffering and abuse by having an easy dumping ground for the cats who didn’t serve them.

‘拯救老虎’在之前从没有接受过白虎,这是由于我们不想让让这里变成人们处理或遗弃这些“有缺陷”的老虎以及造成更多的痛苦和虐待的地方。

Even though Zabu is black and white, the decision of whether or not to rescue her was not. When Zabu and Cameron’s plight came to our attention we had to think long and hard about whether or not we would have a white tiger on our tour. We didn’t want to be perceived as using a white tiger to draw visitors.

尽管Zabu是一只黑白老虎,我们决定不救助这只老虎。当我们注意到Zabu和Cameron所处的困境时,我们不得不仔细考虑并艰难决定要不要救助一只白虎。我们不想被当作用白虎吸引游客的组织。

Many times on our tours we tell guests about the fraud that has been promoted to the public about white tigers and talk about all of our golden tigers who ended up unwanted and abandoned at our door because they were the wrong color. Now we were considering turning away a white tiger because she was the wrong color. In her case the facility was being shut down and by rescuing her we were not enabling the owner to breed more and we were keeping a cat of prime breeding age from falling into the hands of people who would breed her to death.

我们很多次告诉客人们这是关于白虎的一种诈骗行为,并谈到我们所有的金色老虎都是由于拥有错误的颜色而被遗弃在这个组织的门口。 现在我们正在考虑拒绝接收一只白虎,因为她的颜色是错误的。 在这只白虎的情况下,设施正在停止,并且通过救治她,我们不能使得这只白虎的拥有者繁殖出更多的白虎,同时我们正在阻止我们养的一只处于最好的生育期的猫落入想要利用她繁殖的人的手中。

Every year we have to turn away hundreds of big cats. Please do not support those who breed these majestic animals for a life of cruel confinement. No animal, especially a tiger, belongs in a cage.  Carole Baskin, Founder Big Cat Rescue

每年我们都不得不赶走数百只老虎。 请不要支持那些为了残忍囚禁这些动物而繁殖出这些雄壮的动物的人。 没有动物是属于笼子的,尤其是老虎。 Carole Baskin,‘拯救老虎’创始人

ZOO VET ON THE WHITE TIGER FRAUD

动物园的白虎骗局

 

by Dan Laughlin, DVM, Ph.D.

Dan Laughlin, 兽医学博士作

I would like to take this opportunity to offer a very relevant fact regarding all the white tigers that are currently in the U.S. About twenty-five years ago I fully researched and documented the accurate genealogy and origin of the white tiger in the U.S. That research revealed that there were and are two separate origins of white tigers. The one that has received all the attention is the Indian or Bengal tiger bloodline which originated in India and entered the U.S. via a breeding loan to the National Zoo. One of the Indian origin tigers carrying the recessive gene for the white color was the mother of the second litter of white tigers born at the Cincinnati Zoo in 1976.

我想通过这个机会来提供一个关于所有存在于美国的白虎的相关事实。大概二十五年前,我充分地研究并记录了美国白虎的准确谱系及起源。研究揭示出一共有两个独立的起源。其中一个受到关注的起源于印度随后通过国家动物园提供的繁育贷款而进入美国。 其中一位起源于印度的携带白色皮毛的隐性基因的老虎是1976年在辛辛那提动物园出生的第二窝白虎的母亲。

The original litter of white tigers born at Cincinnati in 1974 and all subsequent Indian origin bloodline white tigers soon died out in the U.S. without leaving any pure Indian origin Bengal white tigers in the U.S.

1974年在辛辛那提出生的第一窝白虎以及随后出生的所有拥有印度血统的白虎,很快死在了美国,没有留下任何纯种的印度孟加拉白虎活下来。

What is not known, because I have never published my research definitively showing the true origin of the white tiger in the U.S., is that there is a second and separate origin of the white tiger which occurred spontaneously in two separate private collections in this country when both owners inbred brothers to sisters that were all offspring of two litters resulting from crossing a pure Siberian male and a Bengal female at a small zoo in South Dakota.

因为我从来没有发表过我的关于白虎在美国的真实起源的研究,白虎在美国有第二种独立的起源不被人所熟知,这种起源自发于两个独立的私人收藏中,这两个拥有者都是通过兄妹近亲繁殖而产生的两窝后代,来源于位于南达科塔州的一个小型动物园的一只纯种的公西伯利亚虎和一只母孟加拉虎。

Of the twelve live cubs born to the Siberian male and Bengal female at that small zoo, one of the private individuals purchased a litter of two cubs, a brother and sister, and the other individual purchased another litter of five cubs, brothers and sisters, through an animal dealer. Both individuals inbred their brothers and sisters and spontaneously had white tiger cubs born. One white male crossbred tiger, half-Siberian and half-Bengal, was placed on loan to the Cincinnati Zoo where he was crossed with a white carrier female Bengal tiger on loan from the National Zoo. That hybrid crossing in 1976 of the two separate white tiger origin bloodlines produced a litter of four white tiger cubs and one normal colored white carrier cub.

在这个小型动物园里,在公西伯利亚虎和母孟加拉虎所生下的十二只幼兽中,一位私人买家购买了同一窝中的两只幼兽,一对兄妹,另一位买家则通过动物经销商购买了一窝的五胞胎的兄弟姐妹。 两位买家都通过兄妹间的近亲繁殖自发地繁育出了白虎的幼兽。 一只白色的杂交公虎,拥有一半的西伯利亚虎血统和一半的孟加拉虎血统,它被置于辛辛那提动物园,并在那里和另一只从国家动物园借来的白色的母孟加拉虎杂交。 1976年,这两条独立的白虎血统杂交生出了一窝四只白虎的幼兽和一只普通颜色掺杂白色的幼兽。

“the Zoo proceeded to repeatedly inbreed… the white male to his white female sister… Thus, every white tiger ever born at the Cincinnati Zoo is part Siberian tiger and part Bengal tiger… It is those offspring which have been disseminated throughout the U.S.”

以此进行反复近亲繁殖以繁育出一对公母白虎…因此,出生于辛辛那提动物园每一只白虎都有部分西伯利亚虎和部分孟加拉虎的血缘…它们是在美国被繁育出的后代。“

The Cincinnati Zoo then returned both parents and three of the cubs to the two exhibitors that had placed their adults there on loan and then the Zoo proceeded to repeatedly inbreed back and forth the white male to his white female sister that the Zoo had retained ownership of for themselves. Thus, every white tiger ever born at the Cincinnati Zoo was and is part Siberian tiger and part Bengal tiger to a greater or lesser degree.

然后辛辛那提动物园将这一对父母和三个幼兽归还给那两位将它们放置在动物园,并以此进行反复近亲繁殖以繁育出一对公母白虎,动物园对这对白虎保留所有权。因此,出生于辛辛那提动物园每一只白虎都有部分西伯利亚虎和部分孟加拉虎的血缘。

It is those offspring which have been disseminated throughout the U.S. One of the individuals who owned the litter of five brothers and sisters representing the American crossbred white tiger bloodline has continued to inbreed his tigers for over the past twenty-five years even though his neonate mortality rate has often exceeded eighty per cent and his tigers are severely defective and unfit.

它们由拥有一窝美国杂交白虎血统的五位兄弟姐妹的持有人所繁育出的后代,这个人在过去的二十五年里持续地繁育老虎,即使这些老虎的新生儿死亡率经常超过百分之八十,并且这些老虎有严重的先天缺陷和不足。

By pure chance and against overwhelming odds, when the two separate bloodlines, the Indian and American, were crossed for the first and only time at the Cincinnati Zoo, the offspring were fairly thrifty and of normal birth weight.

当印度人和美国人在纯属巧合的情况下在辛辛那提动物园将这两条独立的血系第一次也是唯一一次进行交叉时,繁育出的后代相当成功,都是正常体重。

Interestingly, anyone with even cursory experience with and knowledge of the five remaining and endangered subspecies of tigers should be able to simply look at the white tigers throughout the U.S. and clearly see the phenotypic Siberian characteristics present in the cats. Some weigh up to seven hundred pounds and most clearly resemble and exhibit Siberian tiger physical characteristics.

有趣的是,任何一个对这五个濒临灭绝的老虎亚种持有大概经验的人都应该去观看这个美国的白虎,他们可以清楚地看到这些白虎所显现出的西伯利亚虎的特征。 一些白虎重达七百磅,这是一个明显的西伯利亚虎的身体特征。

The only conceivable legitimate reason for exhibiting a white tiger would be for educational purposes to clearly and unequivocally illustrate to the public the process of natural selection and how, when a deleterious recessive genetic mutation randomly occurs that is disadvantageous for the survival of the animal, such as white color in a tropical jungle environment, the animal does not survive to pass on that genetic mutation or disadvantageous characteristic to its offspring.

唯一可以想象出的展示白虎的正当理由是为了教育,为了清晰地向公众解释自然选择的过程,为了说明有害的隐性基因突变的随机发生对于动物的存活是不利的,就比如在热带丛林环境中的白色皮毛,以及动物并不能将这些基因突变或者不利的特性遗传给后代。

This was the normal course of natural selection and evolution of the tiger until a young white tiger male was captured in 1951, raised and then inbred to one of his daughters by a Maharajah in India who had captured him. Then, in the early 1970’s, the recessive genetic mutation for the white color was present in both the male Siberian tiger and the female Bengal tiger that was exhibited and bred at the small zoo in South Dakota resulting in the origin of the American white tiger bloodline.

直到1951年一只年幼的公白虎被捕并被印度的一位大君所捕获,然后由他的一个女儿进行抚养,在这之前这一直在进行着正常的自然选择和进化。 接着,在二十世纪七十年代早期,在南达科塔州的小型动物园展出并被繁育的公西伯利亚虎和母孟加拉虎,都出现了白色隐性基因突变,这就是美国白虎血统的起源。

To quote from Dr. Ron Tilson, Conservation Director of the Minnesota Zoo, “The white tiger controversy among zoos is a small part ethics and a large part economics. The tiger Species Survival Plan has condemned breeding white tigers because of their mixed ancestry, most have been hybridized with other subspecies and are of unknown lineage, and because they serve no conservation purpose. Owners of white tigers say they are popular exhibit animals and increase zoo attendance and revenues as well. The same rationalization can be applied to the selective propagation of white lions, king cheetahs, and other phenotypically aberrant animals.”

引用明尼苏达动物园保护总监Ron Tilson博士的话说:“动物园中的白虎争议所涉及到的是道德规范的一小部分,和经济的一大部分。老虎物种生存计划强烈谴责繁育白虎这样的行为,因为这些白虎的混血祖先,多数已经与其他亚种虎类杂交,属于不为人知的世系血统,并没有保存的需要。一些白虎的拥有者说这些白虎是很受欢迎的展出动物,它们可以提高动物园的入园率和利润。同样,这些理由也可用于选择性的繁殖白狮子、帝王豹和其他异常表现型的动物。

“However, there is an unspoken issue that shames the very integrity of zoos, their alleged conservation programs and their message to the visiting public. To produce white tigers or any other phenotypic curiosity, directors of zoos and other facilities must continuously inbreed father to daughter and father to granddaughter and so on. At issue is a contradiction of fundamental genetic principles upon which all Species Survival Plans for endangered species in captivity are based. White tigers are an aberration artificially bred and proliferated by some zoos, private breeders and a few circuses who do so for economic rather than conservation reasons.”

“然而,有一个不言而喻的问题就是这会抹黑动物园的正义性、所谓的保护计划以及传递给访客的信息。为了产生白虎或者其他新奇的表现型物种,动物园和其他设施的负责人必须使父女或祖父女不断地近亲繁殖。这会导致一个基本的遗传原理的矛盾,而所有的濒危物种生存计划都是基于这个原理的。白虎是一种由动物园、私人繁育者和少数马戏团为了经济原因而不是保护原因而通过人工繁育产生的。”

“…every white tiger in the U.S. is not only the result of repeated inbreeding of genetically defective animals but, even worse, is a hybrid or crossbred animal.”

在美国的每一只白虎都不仅是由于重复地近亲繁殖而具有遗传缺陷的动物,它们更是一种混血或杂交的动物“

Dr. Tilson made these comments before I informed him that all the white tigers in the U.S. are crossbred or hybrid animals, part Siberian and part Bengal.

在Tilson博士提出这些意见之前,我告诉他,美国的所有白虎都是杂交或混血动物,都具有一部分西伯利亚虎血统和一部分孟加拉虎血统。

So, in conclusion, every white tiger in the U.S. is not only the result of repeated inbreeding of genetically defective animals but, even worse, is a hybrid or crossbred animal. Thus, anyone involved in breeding and/or exhibiting white tigers is doing a great disservice to honest conservation and preservation efforts to save the five remaining and endangered subspecies of tigers barely clinging to survival in their rapidly diminishing natural habitats.

总之,在美国的每一只白虎都不仅是由于重复地近亲繁殖而具有遗传缺陷的动物,它们更是一种混血或杂交的动物。 因此,任何参与繁育或展示白虎的人都会对那些认真的挽救剩下的五只濒临灭据的老虎亚种所付出的努力造成极大的损害,这五只老虎由于自然栖息地的急速流失几乎无法生存。

“anyone involved in breeding and/or exhibiting white tigers is doing a great disservice to … conservation … efforts to save the 5 … species of tigers…”

“任何参与繁育或展示白虎的人都会对那些认真的挽救剩下的五只濒临灭据的老虎亚种所付出的努力造成极大的损害…“

The genealogical misrepresentation, repeated inbreeding, exhibition and sale, for $60,000 each, of white tigers by the Cincinnati Zoo initiated the greatest conservation deception of the American public in history. That deception continues through today. In my view, exhibiting and breeding white tigers is the very antithesis of conservation, is dishonest and unethical and is tantamount to catering to the public’s desire to see genetic aberrations rather than educating the public regarding the incredible process of natural selection, how the unbelievable diversity of life has evolved on our planet throughout the past 50 million years and the crucial need for us to preserve natural habitats and stop the destruction of our global ecosystem if we desire to save any threatened or endangered species from extinction.

美国辛辛那提动物园所展出的白虎错误的家族谱系,重复的近亲繁殖,展出并已6万美元每只的价格售卖这些白虎,导致了在美国历史上对公众的最大骗局。 这种骗局直到今天还在继续。 在我看来,展出和繁育白虎是站在保护白虎的对立面的,这是不诚实并且不道德的,等同于迎合公众想要看到基因突变的愿望,而不是教育公众关于生态系统的难以置信的自然选择的过程,我们的星球上在过去五千万年的时间中进化出了丰富的生物多样性,如果我们想要去拯救任何受到威胁或濒临灭绝的物种,我们就需要去保护它们的自然栖息地,并停止破坏我们的生态系统。

This white tiger is not living on Easy Street!
His 4 photos are to illustrate the facial deformities that typically accompany the white gene.  You never see these “throw-away” cats on display in zoos. Click here to download a 2-page flier to share with others about why there is no pride in breeding for defects HERE这只白虎生活得很不好!
他的这4张照片是用来解释典型得白色基因所伴随的面部畸形。 你从来看不到这些“被遗弃”的老虎在动物园展出。 点击这里下载一个2页的传单并与其他人分享为什么繁育出的缺陷不值得骄傲。

I hope this information helps inform visitors to your website.

我希望这些信息可以通过网络帮助你的游客来理解。

Sincerely,

诚挚地,

Daniel C. Laughlin, DVM, PhD

Daniel C. Laughlin 兽医学博士

Note: Dr. Laughlin is widely recognized internationally for his expertise in the care and management of zoological animals, especially zoological cats and elephants. He has an international consulting practice limited to zoological animals and when he completed his research into the accurate genealogy of the white tiger he had well over 250 tigers in his practice alone.

注意:Laughlin博士在动物学中尤其是动物学中的猫科和大象科的护理和管理方面受到国际认可。 他的国际咨询仅限于动物学科。当他完成了对白虎准确的家族族谱的研究时,他在实践中就有超过250只老虎。

He also completed a landmark four-year study in the 1970’s determining the efficacy, dosage, and safety of a modified-live trivalent FVRC-P vaccine for use on zoological cats. That study included 224 zoological cats representing 19 different species and the results of that vaccination study have saved the lives of thousands of captive zoological cats.

他还在70年代完成了一项为期四年的具有里程式碑意义的研究,用于确定猫科动物的三价FVRC-P疫苗的功效,剂量和安全性。 这项研究包括了代表19种不同物种的一共224只猫科动物,这项疫苗接种研究的成果挽救了数以千计的圈养猫科动物的生命。

Dr. Laughlin has graciously agreed to be a Consultant for the care and management of our extensive collection of zoological cats at “Big Cat Rescue.”

Laughlin博士非常慷慨地同意担任 “拯救老虎” 组织中我们广泛的猫科动物聚集和管理顾问。

Genetics of the White Tiger

白虎遗传学

 

White Tigers can ONLY exist in captivity by continual inbreeding, such as father to daughter, brother to sister, mother to son and so forth. This is because the white color is the result of a double recessive allele (gene) and thus the white color can only be produced by inbreeding one tiger carrying the recessive gene for the white color to another tiger carrying the same recessive gene. Before the five remaining species of tigers were pushed to the brink of extinction by the activities of humans, the random occurrence of one normal colored tiger carrying the recessive gene for the white color breeding to another normal colored tiger also carrying the recessive gene for white color, thus producing one or possibly two cubs possessing the double allele for the white color and consequently being born white, occurred about once in every 10,000 births. That statistical approximation is based upon recorded observations in the wild of white cubs. It should be noted that the first recorded observation of a white cub was made in the mid-fifteenth century and the only wild observations of white cubs have been in Bengal tigers.

使得白虎存在的唯一方式是通过不断的父女、兄妹、母子进行近亲繁殖。这是因为白色皮毛的产生是双重隐性等位基因(一种基因)所造成的结果,因此这样的白色只能通过将携带此隐性基因的一只老虎与携带同种隐性基因的老虎进行近亲繁殖而产生。在剩下的五种老虎由于人类的活动而被推到了灭绝的边缘之前,一只正常颜色的携带隐性基因的老虎与另一只正常颜色也携带隐形等位基因的老虎可一同繁育出一只或两只具有白色双等位基因的幼兽,因此会出现白虎,大概每10,000只出生的幼兽就会发生一只这样的。这个统计的推测值是基于白色幼兽野外观察记录的结果。应该指出的是,第一次记录所观察到的白色幼兽是在十五世纪中,唯一观察到的野生白色幼兽是孟加拉虎。

Because the white coloration is so disadvantageous to survival there is no recorded evidence of a white cub ever living long enough in the wild to become an adult. That is why white tigers ONLY exist in captivity and then ONLY as the result of continual, destructive and unethical inbreeding. Thus, the concept of the “Royal Rare White Bengal Tiger” is a myth and likely the most deceptive misconception and most destructive conservation fraud ever perpetrated on the American public. The truth is that all the white tigers currently in the United States are not even Bengal tigers but are worthless hybrids or crossbreds originating from normal colored offspring born to a pure Siberian male tiger and a pure Bengal female tiger that were kept together during the 1960’s at the Sioux Falls, S.D. Zoo. Unknown to the Zoo at that time or to the two private exhibitors who purchased cubs from two litters born at the Zoo, all the normal colored cubs carried the recessive gene for the white color because either or both their Siberian father or their Bengal mother was a or were random carriers of the recessive mutant gene. Thus when the two private exhibitors that purchased litter mates from the Sioux Falls Zoo unethically bred brother to sister, the recessive mutant genes were paired, producing one or two white tigers.

因为白色并不利于生存,因此没有被记录下来的证据显示白色幼兽可以在野外活得足够长并成年。这就是为什么白虎只能被圈养,然后才会因为持续性的,破坏性的和不道德的近亲繁殖而存在。因此,“稀有的皇家白孟加拉虎”的概念是一个神话,这可能是对于美国民众最有欺骗性的概念偷换和最具破坏性的骗局。事实上,目前在美国的所有白虎并不是孟加拉虎,而是没有价值的由纯种公西伯利亚虎和纯种母孟加拉虎的纯种普通颜色后代的经由杂交而得到的品种,它们在20世纪60年代一直被保存在苏福尔斯的S.D.动物园。当时动物园还没有因此出名,这是由两个私人参展商从动物园出生的两窝幼兽中购买了幼兽,所有正常的普通颜色的幼兽都携带了白色的隐性等位基因,因为他们的父亲西伯利亚虎或母亲孟加拉虎中的一方或双方是隐性突变基因的随机携带者。因此,当两个私人参展商从苏福尔斯动物园购买被遗弃的虎并不道德地使兄妹近亲繁殖的时候,隐性突变基因就配对了,因此产生了一只或两只白虎。

“…private exhibitors have experienced neonatal mortality rates in excess of 80% because the recessive gene for the white color is a deleterious mutation…”

“…私人参展商的白虎的新生儿死亡率都超过了百分之八十,因为白色隐性基因是一种有害的基因突变…“

Both private exhibitors have experienced neonatal mortality rates in excess of 80% because the recessive gene for the white color is a deleterious mutation and thus is co-linked to numerous other deleterious and often fatal characteristics such as immune deficiency, strabismus (crossed eyes), scoliosis of the spine (distorted spine), cleft palates, mental impairments and early death.

这两家私人参展商的白虎的新生儿死亡率都超过了百分之八十,因为白色隐性基因是一种有害的基因突变,因此会伴随许多其他有害并且经常致命的特征比如免疫缺陷,斜视(交叉眼), 脊柱侧弯(脊柱变形),纯腭裂,精神障碍和早夭

The genetics of all recessive genes works like this:

所有隐性基因的遗传都是这样进行的:

If we assign, say a capital “N” to represent normal color in a tiger and a small “w” to represent white color (because the white color is recessive and the orange color is dominant), then a normal colored orange tiger would be represented as “NN” and a normal colored orange tiger carrying the recessive gene for the white color would be represented as “Nw.” So, if we bred a normal colored orange tiger to a normal colored orange tiger carrying the recessive gene for the white color, we would represent that cross as “NN” x “Nw” and the offspring would be represented as half “NN” and half “Nw”. In other words, one-half of the cubs would be normal orange color non-carriers and one-half would be normal color orange carriers of the recessive white gene.

如果我们用一个大写字母“N”来表示一只老虎的正常颜色,用一个小写字母“w”来表示白色(由于白色是隐性的,橙色是主导型的),那么一个普通的橙色的老虎将是以“NN”表示,而携带白色隐性基因的普通橙色老虎将表示为“Nw”。因此,如果我们将正常的橙色老虎饲养到携带白色隐性基因的橙色老虎一同繁育,我们将这个杂交过程表示为“NN”x“Nw”,它们的后代一半被表示为“NN”,另一半被表示为“Nw”。 换句话说,一半的幼崽是正常的橙色非携带白色隐性基因者,另一半是携带隐性白色基因的橙色老虎。

Then, if the two normal color orange carriers of the white gene were bred to each other (brother to sister) the genetic representation would be: “Nw” x “Nw” and the offspring would be something like this: one-fourth “NN”, one-half “Nw” and one-fourth “ww”.

那么,如果携带白色基因的两个普通橙色老虎彼此繁殖(兄妹),基因的遗传将表示为:“Nw”x“Nw”,后代将是这样的:四分之一的“NN “,一半的“Nw”和四分之一的”ww“。

In other words, one out of four cubs, statistically, would be a normal orange colored non-carrier cub (“NN”), one-half of the cubs would be normal orange colored carriers of the recessive white gene (2 “Nw”) and one cub would be a double allele carrier of the white recessive gene (“ww”) and thus be colored white.

换句话说,统计上讲,四只幼兽中的一个将是普通的橙色老虎并且不携带白色等位基因的幼兽(“NN”),一半的幼兽将是橙色老虎但是携带隐性白基因的幼兽(2“Nw” ),一个幼兽将是白色隐性基因(“ww”)的双等位基因携带者,因此出生为白色。

But, when you cross a white male to a white female (“ww” x “ww”) you can only have all white cubs born (“ww”) and that is what The Cincinnati Zoo and individuals such as Siegfried and Roy have been doing for at least the past fifteen generations, always breeding for large size, thus unknowingly emphasizing the Siberian phenotypic or physical characteristics deriving from “Kubla,” the pure Siberian male at the Sioux Falls, S.D. Zoo.

但是,当你使一只公白虎和一只母白虎进行杂交(“ww”x“ww”),你只能得到白色幼兽(“ww”),这就是辛辛那提动物园和那些私人持有者比如Siegfried和Roy在过去的至少十五代的老虎中总是繁育出体量大的老虎,因此他们不知不觉地强调这是来源于一只在S.D.动物园的纯种的公西伯利亚虎名为“Kubla”的西伯利亚虎的表现型或特征。

 

 

Inbreeding Time Line

近亲繁殖的时间线

Chronology of the white Bengal tiger up until the death of Mohan:

直到Mohan死亡的白孟加拉虎的纪年表:

1820: A white tiger was displayed at Exeter Change.

1820年:一只白虎在Exeter变化展进行展出。

1915: White tiger cub captured by Maharajah Gulab Singh of Rewa. Upon its death, it was gifted to King George V as a sign of India’s loyalty to the crown.

1915年:Rewa的大君Gulab Singh捕获了一只白虎幼兽。 在其死后,这只白虎被赠与乔治五世并作为其王位的标志。

25th May 1951: A forest laborer reported sighting a white tiger cub.

1951年5月25日:一位森林工人报告说见到了一只白虎幼兽。

26th May 1951: The cub’s mother and two of its three siblings were shot and killed.

1951年5月26日:白虎幼兽的母亲和两只白虎兄妹被射击并杀害。

27th May 1951: Maharaja Martand Singh captured Mohan.

1951年5月27日:Maharaja Martand Singh捕获了Mohan。

30th May 1951: The cub escapes and a large party goes out to recapture it.

1951年5月30日:白虎幼兽出逃后被再次捕获。

26th February 1952: A normal colored tigress named Begum is captured.

1952年2月26日:一只名为Begum的普通颜色的母虎被捕获。

10th April 1955: Begum produced a litter of a male and two female cubs. All were orange, as were all the cubs in her subsequent two litters.

1955年4月10日:Begum产出了一窝包含有一只公虎两只母虎的幼兽。就像随后产出的两窝一样,全部为橙色。

December 1957: Mohan was mated with Radha, his four-year-old daughter from the second litter with Begum.

1957年12月:Mohan与他和Begum的第二窝中的四岁女儿Ragha近亲繁殖配对。

20th October 1958: Radha produced an all-white litter of a male and three female cubs. They were christened Raja, Rani, Sukeshi, and Mohini. Subsequently:

1958年10月20日:Radha产出了一窝白虎,包括一只公虎和三只母虎。随后它们被命名为Raja, Rani, Sukeshi,和Mohini。

The male and one female (Raja and Rani) were gifted to the National Zoological Gardens in New Delhi.

其中公虎和一只母虎(RajaRani被赠予新德里国家动物园。

Mohini was transported to Washington D.C.

Mohini被转移至华盛顿特区。

Sukeshi was kept for mating with Mohan and remained with him until he was withdrawn from breeding. She was then housed with her son in hopes they would breed but he showed no interest in mating with her and after six years without success, she too was transferred to the National Zoological Gardens in New Delhi where she died on the 2nd February 1975.

Sukeshi被留下和Mohan交配直到他不再繁殖。 随后她被放置于与儿子一同居住,并被希望能够繁殖,但她的儿子并没有兴趣与她交往,经过了六年没有成功繁育,她也被转移至新德里国家动物园,并在1975年2月2日去世。

May 1964: Raja and Rani were mated. Rani gave birth to two white cubs, a male and a female. She mauled both and the female died. The male, ‘Tippu’ lost his tail and was hand-raised with great difficulty.

1964年5月:Raja和Rani交配。Rani生下了两个白色的幼崽,一只公虎和一只母虎。 她被伤害并且母虎死去了,公虎Tippu失去了它的尾巴并且很难被养大。

August 1965: Two white cubs born to Rani. Both died due to neglect.

1965年8月:Rani产出两只白虎幼兽,两只都由于疏忽看管而死亡。

19th December 1965: Three white cubs are born to Rani. They were left in her care for just over a month, at which point she lost interest and they were hand-raised. The female dies at the age of 17-months and one male dies on the 17th April 1967 during shipping to the United States.

1965年12月19日:Rani产出了三只白色幼兽。 他们被关了一个多月并且无人看管,在那时,她失去了兴趣去养育这些白虎幼兽。母虎在17个月时死亡,一只公虎在1967年4月17日运往美国途中死亡。

Breeding of Rani continued and she produced a total of 20 white cubs.

Rani持续繁育并总共产出了20只白虎。

19th December 1969: Mohan died aged 19 years 7 months. All captive white tigers descend from Mohan, which explains why they are so genetically inbred.

1969年12月19日:Mohan死于19岁零7个月。所有的被捕获的白虎都是Mohan的后代,这可以用近亲繁殖的过程来解释。

Please!  Never pay to see or touch a white tiger.  You can protect tigers from such abuse by sharing and liking this page.

请永远不要付费观看或触摸白虎!你可以通过分享或点赞此页面来保护老虎。

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